澳洲亿忆网专栏教育「文末送资料」情态动词和虚拟语气专讲专练,高中生必须掌握

「文末送资料」情态动词和虚拟语气专讲专练,高中生必须掌握

2020-01-17 来源:英语周报 阅读数 634 分享
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情态动词和虚拟语气

一、情态动词

1. 常用情态动词的用法比较

1)在表示“可能性”方面

must, can, should, may, might都可以用于表示“可能性”。

a. must表示以事实为依据而进行的逻辑上的推理,它所指的动作或状态发生的可能性最大。

b. can和should表示以事实、理由为依据而进行猜测,它们所指的动作有发生的可能性,但语气没有must那么肯定。其中,should的主观性较强。

c. may和might语气较弱,表示说话人根据自己的主观判断而进行的猜测。其中,might的语气更弱一些。

2)在表示“允诺”方面

can, may, might都可以表示“允诺”,其中might最为客气、委婉。如:

You can leave now.

May I trouble you with a question?

Might I have another cup of coffee?

3)在表示“应该”方面

must, ought to, should都能用来表示“出于某种职责、义务而应该”的意思。must的语气最强烈,ought to居中,而should是表达这方面意思的普通词。如:

We must think of this matter very seriously.

Students ought to study hard.

The police should do something about it.

2. 情态动词的特殊用法:

1)shall用于第一人称表示坚强的信念和决心;用于第二、三人称,表示许诺、命令或规定等。如:

We shall not fail.

You shall have it back tomorrow.

You shall do as you see me do.

In the rules, it says that a player shall be sent off for using bad language.

2)should表示惊讶等情感,意为“竟然”。如:

It’s odd you should mention Ben! I was just thinking about him.

3)must表示说话人的不满,意为“偏要,硬要”。如:

Eric must come and worry me with questions, just when I am busy cooking the dinner.

If you must know, I’m going to help Brad look for an apartment.

4)may表示祝愿;may as well用来提出建议,意为“还是……的好”;may well用来表示可能性,意为“很可能”。 如:

It is a fine tradition and long may it continue!

All the pubs are closing. We may as well go home.

It may well be true.

3. “情态动词+ have done”结构

1)could / might / should / ought to / need have done意为“本来能/可能/应该/需要做……,但实际上未做”。如:

He could have escaped, but he chose to stand and fight.

2)“情态动词+ have done”还可用来表示推测过去可能发生的事情。如:

Did you say anything that might have upset her?

二、虚拟语气

1. 虚拟语气在名词性从句中的用法

1)“It is / was +形容词 / 过去分词+ that从句”结构中的主语从句表示命令、愿望、建议等时,谓语用“should +动词原形”,should可省略。如:

It is necessary that a college student (should) master a foreign language.

It is desired that this rule (should) be brought to the attention of the staff.

2)动词wish后的宾语从句中,表示与现在事实相反时,从句中谓语用过去式;表示与过去事实相反时,从句中谓语用“had +过去分词”;表示将来很难实现的愿望时,从句中谓语用“would / could / might +动词原形”。如:

How I wish I was there with you!

I wish I hadn’t lost the chance.

I wish he would / could / might go with us to the theatre.

3)在would rather / sooner后的宾语从句中谓语要用虚拟语气。尚未发生的动作用动词的过去式,已经发生的动作用“had +过去分词”。如:

—Do you mind if I smoke here?

—I’d rather you didn’t.

I’d sooner you hadn’t told me about it.

4)表示建议、要求、意图、命令、推荐等意义的动词(如suggest, demand, require, request, order, insist, recommend)后的宾语从句中谓语常用“should +动词原形”,should可省略。如:

The employees have demanded that the manager (should) resign.

I recommend that everyone (should) buy this dictionary.

5)表示建议、要求、意图、命令、推荐等意义的名词后的表语从句或同位语从句中,谓语用“should +动词原形”,should可省略。如:

Our only request is that this (should) be settled as soon as possible.

He made the decision that nothing (should) hold him back.

2. 虚拟语气在非真实条件句中的用法

在错综时间虚拟条件句(主句和从句所表示的时间不一致)中,虚拟语气的形式应作相应的调整。如:

If we had consulted him on the question yesterday, we should know what to do now.

非真实条件句中的条件有时并不是直接通过条件句来表示,而是暗含在词、短语或上下文中,这种句子叫含蓄条件句。如:

I’m really very busy, otherwise / or I would certainly go there with you. (暗含条件是otherwise / or)

This same thing, happening in wartime, would amount to disaster. (条件暗含在happening in wartime中)

It would be easier to do it this way. (条件暗含在不定式短语to do it this way中)

We could have done better under more favorable conditions. (条件暗含在介词短语under more favorable conditions中)

But for the heavy traffic, we would have arrived earlier. (暗含条件是But for the heavy traffic)

3. 虚拟语气中if的省略

如果条件从句的谓语中有were, had或should等词时,可将if省略,而把were, had或should等放在句首。如:

If I were to do the work, I should do it some other way.

→Were I to do the work, I should do it some other way.

4. 虚拟语气在as if / as though引导的从句中的用法

在as if或as though引导的从句中,从句所表示的内容与现在事实不符时,谓语用过去式(be的过去式多用were);与过去事实不符时,谓语用“had +过去分词”形式。如:

She is walking slowly as if she were tired.

It looked as though they had quarrelled.

注意:如果从句所表示的内容被看作是事实或者有可能是事实,就要用陈述语气。如:

You look as though you’ve had a bad time!

高考链接

I. 选用括号内合适的内容补全下面句子。

1. It’s strange that he ________ (should, might) have taken the books without the owner’s permission.

2. I can’t find my purse. I ________ (could leave, could have left) it in the supermarket yesterday, but I’m not sure.

3. In today’s information age, the loss of data ________ (should, can) cause serious problems for a company.

4. Samuel, the tallest boy in our class, ________ (can, should) easily reach the books on the top shelf.

5. My room is a mess, but I ________ (needn’t, mustn’t) clean it before I go out tonight. I can do it in the morning.

II. 用括号内动词的正确形式填空(含否定形式)。

1. There is a good social life in the village, and I wish I ________________ (have) a second chance to become more involved.

2. If we ________________ (catch) the flight yesterday, we would be enjoying our holiday on the beach now.

3. They might have found a better hotel if they ________________ (drive) a few more kilometers.

4. If the new safety system ________________ (put) to use, the accident would never have happened.

5. —Do you have Betty’s phone number?

—Yes. Otherwise, I ________________ (be) able to reach her yesterday.

6. ________________ (be) it not for the support of the teachers, the student could not overcome her difficulty.

Key:

I. 1. should 2. could have left 3. can 4. can 5. needn’t

II. 1. had 2. had caught 3. had driven 4. had been put

5. wouldn’t / couldn’t / shouldn’t / mightn’t have been 6. Were

情态动词和虚拟语气专项练习

I. 选用方框内合适的情态动词填空(每词限用一次)。

can, shall, may, should, must

1. Haven’t you seen the sign “No parking” here? Cars ________ not be parked here.

2. No reader ________ remove a book from the library without the permission of the librarian.

3. The girl ________ not be Mary — she’s in New York.

4. That the well-dressed young man ________ speak to you like that is quite astonishing.

5. —Is David coming by train?

—He should, but he ________ not. He likes driving his car.

II. 用括号内单词的正确形式填空。

1. Doctors strongly recommend that fathers ________ (be) present at their baby’s birth.

2. If you ________ (follow) my advice to prepare well ahead, you wouldn’t have failed the exam.

3. The city would look more beautiful if people _________ (throw) rubbish on the streets.

4. When I stopped talking, Sam finished my sentence for me as though he ________ (read) my mind.

5. If I could speak Spanish, I ________ (spend) next year studying in Mexico.

6. If you _________ (fail) your last exam, you would have graduated in May.

7. Sam would help the poor if he ________ (be) rich.

8. If I hadn’t lost my cellphone, I ________ (contact) you yesterday.

III. 从a-h中找出与1-6相对应的后半句(有两项多余选项)。

A

1. I said I’d pay for her ticket but she ( )

2. In just a few years from now people ( )

3. I still remember how they ( )

4. Forecasters are warning that heavy snow ( )

5. We live in an old house that ( )

6. Writing my geography assignment ( )

B

a. could cause dangerous driving conditions.

b. shouldn’t take me too long.

c. will have tasted.

d. wouldn’t accept my offer.

e. would play together so well as children.

f. would be a school.

g. will be able to control their car using an app.

h. used to belong to a politician.

IV. 根据括号内的提示补全下面句子,使句子意思保持不变(每空一词)。

1. The course is likely to be of interest to those working with pre-school age children. (may find)

→Those working with pre-school age children ________ ________ ________ ________ ________.

2. During the winter I prefer watching football to playing it. (would sooner)

→During the winter I ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ it.

3. Karen says it takes less than an hour to drive there, but I’m sure she has got it wrong. (must)

→Karen says it takes less than an hour to drive there, but she ________ ________ ________ a mistake.

4. Students wishing to enroll on the course are required to complete all sections of the application form. (should)

→Students wishing to enroll on the course ________ ________ ________ ________ of the application form.

5. I wish I had considered the question more carefully before answering it. (should)

→I ________ ________ ________ the question more carefully before answering it.

6. It’s a long walk home, so I advise you not to miss the last train. (had better)

→It’s a long walk home, so ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ the last train.

V. 根据括号内的提示用虚拟语气改写下面句子。

1. She asked him to fix the computer. (request)

2. Sandra wanted the post office to hold onto her mail. (ask)

3. “Give me a refund,” John told the clerk. (demand)

4. “Discuss the question at the next meeting,” he advised us. (suggest)

5. “Take a vacation,” our boss told us. (insist)

VI. 根据括号内的汉语提示补全下面句子(每空一词,含缩略形式)。

1. There is another bus later, so we ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ (不必上这辆).

2. Neil wouldn’t have had the accident if he ________ ________ ________ (没有突然刹车).

3. As his leg was injured, John ________ ________ (不能比赛) for the next couple of weeks.

4. Since the teenagers were partying very loudly, they ________ ________ (不能听见) the doorbell.

5. Your advice that she ________ ________ ________ ________ (等到下周) is reasonable.

6. I should not have made fool of you if I ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ (早想到你是认真的).

7. If you had spent more time practicing making it before, you ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ (就能把它做得更好) now.

8. I wish I ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ (能借给你一些钱) for your rent, but I’m broke.

9. ________ ________ ________ (如果我知道) it would be stressful for you, I would never have encouraged you to go into this field.

10. It is vital that he ________ ________ ________ (被警告) before it is too late.

VII. 选用括号内合适的内容补全下面短文。

Celebrity culture has spread in almost all sectors of society. It is no longer restricted to film stars and singers. However, only a small number of people 1. ________ (can, must) achieve celebrity. For those who do, the rewards 2. ________ (can, need) be huge. Watch any reality TV show and you 3. ________ (ought to, may) find competitors who dream of attaining celebrity. However, any fame they achieve is likely to be fleeting (转瞬即逝的) and with limited social or economic value.

In many industries, such as arts, celebrity 4. ________ (need, can) have an advantage. Many non-famous people working in the arts are likely to be relatively poorly paid even though they 5. ________ (may, ought to) be as talented as their more famous counterparts. This results in resentment (憎恨) amongst colleagues.

责编 | 杨宁

审稿 | 李栋

校稿 | 吕放

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